dengue, epidemic


Months after the Dengvaxia controversy exploded in the Philippines, dengue is making local headlines once again.

The Department of Health (DOH) recently declared a national dengue epidemic. Based on the report from the agency’s Epidemiology Bureau (DOH-EB), a total of 249,332 cases were reported across the country as of August 24 (a 109 percent increase from 2018’s numbers). Additionally, over 1,000 dengue-related deaths (to date) have been confirmed by the agency.

How dengue spreads

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease. The virus (DEN) has four strains, or serotypes: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. A person who already had one strain becomes immune to that particular strain. However, immunity to one strain appears to make the others even more dangerous for the patient.

The virus is passed on to humans through bites from infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These insects acquire the virus from feeding on the blood of an infected person. Once infected, the human serves as a carrier and multiplier of the virus, becoming a source for uninfected mosquitoes.

Symptoms of dengue

Symptoms include high fever (40°C) accompanied by any two of the following:

*Severe headache
*Pain behind the eyes
*Nausea
*Vomiting
*Swollen glands
*Muscle and joint pain
*Rashes

These symptoms usually last for 2-7 days, after an incubation period of 4-10 days.

In severe cases, symptoms may include plasma leaking, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, severe bleeding, or organ impairment. In this critical stage, the symptoms can be lethal. Proper medical care can prevent complications and death.

Treatment

Although dengue has been infecting millions of people worldwide since 1970, there is still no specific treatment for dengue fever.

Dengvaxia, the first vaccine for the disease, was developed in 2015. However, clinical trials showed that although it is safe and effective for seropositive individuals (those who had previous dengue virus infection), seronegative individuals (those who experienced their first natural dengue infection after vaccination) had increased risk of severe dengue. Thus, only patients who had previously contracted dengue are adviced to avail vaccination.

Precautionary and control measures

At present, the main method to combat the disease is via vector control measures.

Proper environmental modification, solid waste disposal, and water storage management can prevent mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats. Individuals may also take precautionary measures, such as wearing sleeved clothes, using insect repellent lotion, and installing window screens.

dengue, 4s

As the disease has become a national problem in the Philippines, there is a stronger call for community participation and mobilization for sustained vector control. It is also critical to properly disseminate information and heighten awareness about the disease. –MF


Cover photo: gov.ph

References

  • https://www.doh.gov.ph/press-release/DOH-DECLARES-NATIONAL-DENGUE-EPIDEMIC
  • https://www.who.int/denguecontrol/human/en/
  • https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1163219/dengue-cases-hit-250000-more-than-1000-dead
  • https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2003/06/when-dengue-strikes-twice